Xanthan gum used in food

Xanthan gum used in food

Xanthan gum is used as thickeners, suspending agents, emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. Xanthan gum has reliable performance under some severe regulations (such as pH value from 3 to 9, temperature between 80 to 130℃), so compared to gelatin, CMC, sodium alginate and pectin, the performance of xanthan gum is superior.

Xanthan gum can control the rheology, structure, flavor and appearance of the product, and its pseudo-plasticity can ensure good taste, so it is widely used in the food industry.

In the food industry, when it is applied in dairy products (such as cheese, fruit, milk drinks, ice cream, yogurt, etc.), it can play the role of improving quality, increasing stability, releasing flavor easily, making the taste delicate and refreshing; in juice drinks, it can keep the liquid evenly and none-hierarchical; when joined in beer, it helps to produce more bubble.

In typical oil-water system, such as salad dressings or sauces, xanthan gum can improve pumpability and adhesion, and enhance the taste and flavor releasing, and it also can make solid particles suspended last for long. Xanthan gum can display its superior stability better in strong acid or high Salt sauce.

In baked goods, xanthan gum can increase cellular bubble content, improve water retention, enhance the taste and make flavor fullness.

1  Thickening property

Xanthan gum solution is a highly efficient thickener with the characteristic of  low concentration but high viscosity (viscosity of 1% aqueous solution equals to 100 times of gelatin).

2  Thermal stability

The viscosity of the xanthan gum solution does not change very much when temperature changes. Usually the viscosity of polysaccharide will change due to heating, but the viscosity of aqueous solution of xanthan gum almost has no change between 10 – 80 ℃. When 1% xanthan gum solution (containing 1% potassium chloride) heated from 25 ℃ to 120 ℃, there is only a 3% reduction in viscosity.

3  The stability to acid-base

The xanthan gum solution is very stable to acid and alkali. Its viscosity is not affected when the pH is 5 to 10, and when the pH is less than 4 or greater than 11, the viscosity of it has slight variation. When the pH is between 3 to 11, the difference of viscosity for maximum and the minimum is less than 10%. Xanthan gum can be dissolved in a variety of acid solution, such as 5% sulfuric acid, 5% nitric acid, 5% acetic acid, 10% hydrochloric acid and 25% phosphoric acid. And these xanthan gum acid solutions are quite stable at room temperature, with few months the quality still will not change. Xanthan gum can be dissolved in sodium hydroxide solution, and has the thickening characteristics. The resulted solution is very stable at room temperature.

Taking the advantage of stable and shear controlled, the household products added xanthan gum have the features of stable production, formed skeleton and good adhesion. But at the same time, xanthan gum cannot improve liquidity.

In frozen food where requires  repeated freezing and thawing circumstances, xanthan gum can provide good stability and water retention properties to reduce the frozen crystal. Xanthan gum can also help in providing a smooth taste, extending shelf life and exceptional resistance to high temperature.

In hot or cold drink, the viscosity of xanthan gum changes rapidly, so it’s especially used in the low-calorie beverages.

Xanthan Gum can be used in pet food.

Xanthan gum has good suspension stability to the particles insolubles. Xanthan gum is usually used in pet canned with locust bean gum to avoid freezing.

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On December 10th, 2012, posted in: Products and Techniques, xanthan gum by Tags:

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